Мир Кристины

Мир Кристины (Эндрю Уайет, 1948 г.). Доска, темпера, гипс, 82х121 см.
Полузаброшенные фермерские постройки производят ощущение неясной тревоги. Девушка застыла в напряженном ожидании чего-то, что прячется там, в доме на холме. Пустое пространство между фигурой и зданиями усиливает чувство одиночества.
Уайет написал это полотно со своей соседки, Кристины Ольсен, которая часто становилась моделью для его работ. Изможденное полиомелитом тело выглядит хрупким и девушка кажется юной, хотя в ту пору Кристине было 53 года. Впервые художник увидел ее через окно, и хотел было помочь, но что-то его удержало. По его словам, Кристина напоминала омара, выброшенного на берег, который упорно стремится обратно в море.
Кристина могла передвигаться только в коляске, но не хотела утруждать этим своих близких. Такая позиция создавала для нее определенную свободу передвижения. В этой немощной женщине сконцентрировалась огромная духовная сила, помогающая забыть о телесных недугах.
Детали картины написаны с фотографической точностью. Пустота в этом пейзаже неслучайна — такой стиль присущ большинству произведений этого американского артиста.

210 ответов

  1. Эндрю Уайета никак не назовешь автором одного шлягера. Он был чрезвычайно плодовитым художником. Он работал как одержимый. Он сделал весомый вклад в историю американской живописи, в известной степени он история американской живописи и есть. И все же есть в его послужном списке картина, которая стоит особняком, несколько возвышаясь над всем остальным. Как «Yesterday» в творчестве «The Beatles» или «Гражданин Кейн» в фильмографии Орсона Уэллса. Небо, девушка, поле. Летний ветер играет с выбившейся из прически прядью – на первый взгляд, «Мир Кристины» может показаться пасторалью. Но приглядевшись внимательнее, вы, конечно, заметите, что худоба героини – болезненна, а в ее позе угадывается отнюдь не буколическое напряжение. Это – Кристина Олсон , соседка художника по летнему дому в штате Мэн. Кристина страдала от последствий полиомиелита и была частично парализована. Будучи то ли слишком скромной, то ли слишком гордой для того, чтобы просить кого-то толкать инвалидное кресло, она передвигалась по окрестностям самостоятельно. Обманчиво идиллический мир Кристины, на самом деле, полон страдания и несгибаемой воли. Эндрю Уайета не зря сравнивают с лучшими американскими романистами двадцатого века. Он раньше Сэлинджера понял, что если есть рожь, должна быть и пропасть. Когда Уайет работал над «Миром Кристины», его роман с акварелью практически сошел на нет. Эндрю сделал выбор в пользу темперных красок, неспешной, почти медитативной техники, которая помогала обуздать порывистый темперамент, располагала к проникновению в суть вещей. Биограф Уайета Ричард Меримен однажды сказал: «Обманчиво гладкий покров темперы был для него как крышка на котле, из которого рвутся эмоции». Уайет не торопился – поле и постройки вдали он писал в течение четырех месяцев. И все это время боролся с искушением обойтись без Кристины: виртуоз недосказанностей, он хотел, чтобы драма едва угадывалась за благостным пейзажем. «Нужно было обойтись вообще без девушки, – скажет он позднее, – слишком много сюжета». К слову, «девушке» к тому времени исполнилось 55, и в образе Кристины Уайету позировала его жена Бетси . Впервые картина «Мир Кристины» была выставлена в нью-йоркской Macbeth Gallery в 1948 году. Публика и критики встретили ее прохладно. В конце концов, полотно купил директор Музея современного искусства Альфред Барр. Один из самых узнаваемых живописных шедевров в истории человечества обошелся ему в 1800 долларов. Прошли десятилетия, прежде чем «Мир Кристины» в англоязычной прессе стали поминать в соседстве с определением «iconic», своеобразные «цитаты» из нее появились в книгах Стивена Кинга и фильмах Роберта Земекиса, а само полотно превратилось в универсальную метафору долгой и тернистой дороги домой. Автор: Андрей Зимоглядов

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